Civil Society and Dictatorship in Modern German History (The Menahem Stern Jerusalem Lectures)

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The Nation in History Historiographical Debates about Ethnicity and Nationalism An expert analyzes the major debates between historians and social scientists on the nature and development of ethnic communities, nations, and nationalism. Smith, Anthony D.

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British government authorizes the Jewish Agency to recruit 10, Jews to form Jewish units in the British army.

British refuse illegal immigrant ship, the Patria , permission to dock in Palestine. The first train of prisoners arrives at Auschwitz-Birkenau. A 2-day strike begins in Amsterdam , in opposition to the anti-Jewish actions being taken by the Nazi occupiers. Palmach , strike force of Haganah , set up. Jewish commando David Raziel is killed by a German bomber while on a mission for the British in Iraq. Rabbi Stephen S. Wise publicizes Riegner report confirming mass murder of European Jews.

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Biltmore Conference of American Zionists. Nazi leaders refine the " Final Solutio n" -- genocide of the Jewish people -- at Wannsee Conference. British deport illegal immigrants to Cyprus. Raphael Lemkin, an international lawyer who escaped from Poland to the U. The Rabbis also demanded the creation of a special federal agency tasked with the rescue of European Jewry.

Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.

Table of contents

For most victims of Nazism, it comes too late. Russians arrive in the Lwow Ghetto, ridding the city of it's German occupiers, only to find the Jewish population liquidated. International tribunal for war crimes is established at Nuremberg. President Truman asks Britain to allow , Jews into Palestine.

Arab League Council decides to boycott goods produced by Zionist firms in Palestine. Member of Jewish underground destroyed a power station and a portion of the Central Jerusalem prison by explosives. Two persons were killed by the police.. Ten persons were injured and one was killed. Captured papers indicated that the purpose of this raid was to take revenge on the British for their seizure of the refugee ship on January British military authorities in Jerusalem questioned 3, Jews and held in custody..

Jewish underground attacked a British military installation near Tel Aviv. This group which contained a number of young girls, had as its goal the capture of British weapons. British authorities rounded up 1, suspects.. The Irgun radio "Fighting Zion" wams that three kidnapped British officers are held as hostages for two Irgun members, Josef Simkohn and Issac Ashbel facing execution as well as 31 Irgun members facing trial..

Thirty Irgun members are sentenced by a British military court to 15 years in prison. One, Benjamin Kaplan, was sentenced to life for carrying a firearm.. British military units and police raided Jewish settlements throughout Palestine searching for the leaders of Haganah. The Jewish Agency for Palestine was occupied and four top official arrested.

British officials announced the discovery of a large arms dump hidden underground at Meshek Yagur. Four were killed and 80 were injured.. Palestine High Commissioner, Lt. Tel Aviv. British officers, Captains K Spencer, C. Warburton and A. Taylor who had been kidnapped by Irgun on June 18 and held as hostages for the lives of Simkohn and Ashbel, were released in Tel Aviv unharmed.

At this time, Irgun issued a declaration of war against the British claiming that they had no alternative but to fight. The west wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem which housed British Military Headquarters and other governmental offices was destroyed at PM by explosives planted in the cellar by members of the Irgun terrorist gang.

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By the 26 of July, the casualties were 76 persons killed, 46 injured and 29 still missing in the rubble. The dead included many British, Arabs and Jews. The British government released a White Paper that accuses the Haganah , Irgun and Stern gangs of "a planned movement of sabotage and violence" under the direction of the Jewish Agency and asserts that the June 29 arrest of Zionist leaders was the cause of the bombing.

The British Palestine Commander, Lt. General Sir Evelyn Barker, banned fraternization by British troops with Palestine Jews whom he stated "cannot be absolved of responsibility for terroristic acts. Tel Aviv is placed under a 22hour-a-day curfew as 20, British troops began a house-to-house sweep for members of the Jewish underground. The city is sealed off and troops are ordered to shoot to kill any curfew violators. Also, two ships have arrived at Haifa with a total of 3, illegal Jewish immigrants. British military authorities ended the curfew in Tel Aviv after detaining persons for further questioning..

The British Government announced that it will allow no more unscheduled immigration into Palestine and that those seeking entry into that country will be sent to Cyprus and other areas under detention.

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Declaring that such immigration threatens a civil war with the Arab population, it charges a "minority of Zionist extremists" with attempting to force an unacceptable solution of the Palestine problem.. Two ships carrying a total of 1, Jewish refugees arrived at Haifa. The port area was isolated on August 11 by British military and naval units.

Event co-organized by lawmakers from left-wing Meretz and right- wing Likud

The first deportation ship sailed for Cyprus with Jews on board. Three Jews were killed and seven wounded when British troops were compelled to fire on a crowd of about 1, persons trying to break into the port area of Haifa. Two Royal Navy ships with 1, illegal Jewish immigrants on board sailed for Cyprus. Another ship with illegal immigrants was captured and confined in the Haifa harbor. British military units searched the coastal villages of Casera and Sadoth Yarn for three Jews who bombed the transport "Empire Rival" last week.

Eighty-five persons, including the entire male population of one of the villages were sent to the Rafa detention center.. British military units discovered arms and munitions dumps in the Jewish farming villages of Dorot and Ruhama.


British troops imposed a curfew and arrested Jews and wounded two in a search for saboteurs in Tel Aviv and neighboring Ramat Gan. Irgun took the action against the railways on September 8, as a protest.. Jewish underground members robbed three banks in Jaffa and Tel Aviv, killing three Arabs. Thirty-six Jews were arrested..

Jewish underground attacks a police station on the coast near Tel Aviv but were driven off by gunfire. British military units and police seized 50 Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe after a Jewish home was blown up. This home belonged to a Jewish woman who had refused to pay extortion money to the Irgun. Two British soldiers were killed when their truck detonated a kind mine outside Jerusalem. A leading Arab figure was wounded in a similar mine explosion in Jerusalem and more mad mines were found near Government House..

Nazi Party leader Herman Goering committs suicide by ingesting a cyanide capsule the night before he is due to be hung following the Nuremberg Trials.

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Executions of those convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials. The British Embassy in Rome was damaged by a bomb, believed to have been phased by Jewish underground members. Irgun took responsibility for the bombing on November Two Jews and two Arabs were killed in clashes between Arabs and a group of Jews attempting to establish a settlement at Lake Hula in northern Palestine. British authorities released the following eight Jewish Agency leaders from the Latrun concentration camp where they had been held since June Moshe Shertok, Dr.

Issac Greenbaum, Dr. A total of 2, Haganah suspects have also been released as well as Jews arrested in the wake of the King David bombing. Railroad traffic was suspended hr 24 hours throughout Palestine following a fourth Irgun attack on railway facilities in two days. Nineteen persons, eleven British soldiers and policemen and eight Arab constables, were killed in Palestine during this period as Jewish underground members, using land mines and suitcase bombs, increased their attacks on railroad stations, trains and even streetcars.